Digital Companion to C. S. Peirce
1906 | Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism | CP 4.537

A common mode of estimating the amount of matter in a MS. or printed book is to count the number of words. There will ordinarily be about twenty the’s on a page, and of course they count as twenty words. In another sense of the word “word,” however, there is but one word “the” in the English language; and it is impossible that this word should lie visibly on a page or be heard in any voice, for the reason that it is not a Single thing or Single event. It does not exist; it only determines things that do exist. Such a definitely significant Form, I propose to term a Type. A Single event which happens once and whose identity is limited to that one happening or a Single object or thing which is in some single place at any one instant of time, such event or thing being significant only as occurring just when and where it does, such as this or that word on a single line of a single page of a single copy of a book, I will venture to call a Token. An indefinite significant character such as a tone of voice can neither be called a Type nor a Token. I propose to call such a Sign a Tone. In order that a Type may be used, it has to be embodied in a Token which shall be a sign of the Type, and thereby of the object the Type signifies. I propose to call such a Token of a Type an Instance of the Type.

1906 [c.] | On Existential Graphs as an Instrument of Logical Research | MS [R] 498

…in the sense in which “the” is one word only, no matter how many times it may occur, it is a Type, a form or habit.

1908 | Letters to Lady Welby | SS 83

A Sign may itself have a “possible” Mode of Being. E.g. A hexagon inscribed in or circumscribed about a conic. It is a Sign, in that the collinearity of the intersections of opposite sides shows the curve to be a conic, if the hexagon is inscribed; but if it be circumscribed the copunctuality of its three diameters (joining opposite vertices.) Its mode of Being may be Actuality: as with any barometer. Or Necessitant: as the word “the” or any other in the dictionary. For a “possible” Sign I have no better designation than a Tone, though I am considering replacing this by “Mark.” [—] An Actual sign I call a Token; a Necessitant Sign a Type.

1908 [c.] | Letters to Lady Welby | MS [R] L463:15

A Sign may be a Habit or Association or other Law, or Real Tendency. Such is the word “the,” considered as one word, in whatever Token it may be actualized. I call such a sign a Type.