A collection composed of any line of identity together with all others that are connected with it directly or through still others is termed a ligature. Thus ligatures often cross cuts, and, in that case, are not graphs.
The totality of all the lines of identity that join one another is termed a ligature. A ligature is not generally a graph, since it may be part in one area and part in another. It is said to lie within any cut which it is wholly within.