The Commens Dictionary

Quote from ‘A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic’


A graph is the propositional expression in the System of Existential Graphs of any possible state of the universe. It is a Symbol, and, as such, general, and is accordingly to be distinguished from a graph-replica. A graph remains such though not actually asserted. An expression, according to the conventions of this system, of an impossible state of things (conflicting with what is taken for granted at the outset or has been asserted by the graphist) is not a graph, but is termed The pseudograph, all such expressions being equivalent in their absurdity.

CP 4.395
‘Pseudograph’ (pub. 13.01.15-11:45). Quote in M. Bergman & S. Paavola (Eds.), The Commens Dictionary: Peirce's Terms in His Own Words. New Edition. Retrieved from
Jan 13, 2015, 11:45 by Mats Bergman