The Commens Dictionary

Quote from ‘Short Logic: Chapter I. Of Reasoning in General’


Reasoning is the process by which we attain a belief which we regard as the result of previous knowledge. [—]

Again, a given belief may be regarded as the effect of another given belief, without our seeming to see clearly why or how. Such a process is usually called an inference; but it ought not to be called a rational inference, or reasoning. A blind force constrains us. [—]

The word illation signifies a process of inference. Reasoning, in general, is sometimes called ratiocination. Argumentation is the expression of a reasoning.

EP 2:11-12
‘Reasoning’ (pub. 03.02.13-08:49). Quote in M. Bergman & S. Paavola (Eds.), The Commens Dictionary: Peirce's Terms in His Own Words. New Edition. Retrieved from
Feb 03, 2013, 08:49 by Sami Paavola
Last revised: 
Jan 07, 2014, 01:00 by Commens Admin